Lokasi Pengunjung Blog ini

Sunday, September 29, 2013

Orang Melayu Berasal Dari Etnik Dusun

Satu lagi penemuan saintifik oleh kumpulan penyelidik forensik dan antropologi USM diketuai oleh Dr. Zafarina Zainudin.

 Orang Melayu Semenanjung Berasal Dari DUSUN.


 Dr Zafarina studies on genetics showed Malay people migrated from Borneo to Sumatera and then to Peninsula Malaysia. I have attached part of her writings below.


Human Genome Center , School of Health Sciences and Dental School , USM CURRENT STATUS OF PROJECT: Ongoing ( started : Jan 2005 ) RESEARCHERS: Principle Investigator: Dr. Zafarina Zainuddin Co-researchers: Dr. Zilfalil Alwi, Prof. Abd. Rani Samsudin, Miss Azlina Ahmad, Dr. Bakiah Shaharuddin, Dr. Liza Sharmini Ahmad Tajudin, Mr. Hoh Boon Peng, Mr. Mohamad Ros Sidek, Dr. Nizam Abdullah, Prof. Norazmi Mohd. Nor, Assoc. Prof. Ooi Keat Gin, Panneerchelvam, Dr. Zainul Ahmad Rajion, Prof. Zainul F.Zainuddin

The Malay race inhabits particularly Peninsular Malaysia and portions of adjacent islands of Southeast Asia (SEA), east coast of Sumatra , coast of Borneo and smaller islands between these areas.

They were traced by anthropological evidence from the north-western part of Yunnan , in China .

The proto-Malays were seafaring people, probably from coastal Borneo who expanded into Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia as a result of trading and seafaring activities.

The present day Malays, called Modern Malays of Peninsular Malaysia and coast of the Malay Archipelago are a mixture of different races.

They were described as deutero-Malays, descendants of the proto-Malays mixed with modern Indians, Thai, Arab and Chinese.

The history and the origin of the Malay race have been the subject of much speculation among scholars.

Since the Malays primarily reside within SEA, particularly Peninsular Malaysia, the prehistoric migrations into these regions must be taken into consideration.

Several hypotheses of the SEA migration pattern have been put forward. Preliminary studies using mitochondrial DNA analyses suggested affinity of the Southern Mongoloid in the Modern Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia (Zafarina, 2004).

The term Melayu or Malay‚ was also associated with the Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya Empire (7th-13 centuries CE) believed to be located in the South-eastern part of Sumatra .

An Arab text dating around 1000 CE observed that travellers bound for China sailed through the sea of Melayu‚ that can be inferred to mean the Straits of Melaka.

On opposite shores of the Straits of Melaka by the 7th century CE or earlier, there were the domicile areas of the Malays, namely Sumatra and the Malay Peninsular.

1. To compile the genetic profile of the Malay race.
2. To study the history, social and anthropology of the Malay race.
3. To characterise the craniofacial, dental and ocular features of Malay race.
4. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with their craniofacial, dental and ocular characteristics. 5. To correlate the genetic profile of the Malay race with its history, social and anthropology.
6. To trace the origin of the Malay race by using the genetic profile, anthropology, craniofacial, dental and ocular characteristics.

The research encompasses four parts of studies: The Historical and Socio-cultural Analysis, the Ocular Morphology Analysis, the Craniofacial Morphology Analysis, and the last major part, the Genetic Analysis.

Various types of genetic markers are used in the study of the genetic components of the population.

These markers are autosomal and Y chromosome STR markers, mtDNA, Human Leucocytes Antigen (HLA) and lastly, the SNP genotyping which will be done using the Microarray 50K genechip system.

1. The tracing of the origin and the migration pattern of the Malay race.
2. Establishing USM as a part of the member of Pacific Pan-Asian SNP Initiative (PASNPI) organized by Human Genome Organization (HUGO)”

Dr Zafarina studies is one of the most cnclusive evidence of Borneo origins of the Malay race. They are not called Malay in Borneo, but Dusuns or Dayaks.

Dr Zafarina traced the genetic migration of the Dusunic speaking people of Borneo southwards in Borneo and along the way producing other tribes such as the Lun Bawangs, Bidayuhs, Ibans, etc. The Bidayuhs in turn migrated to Sulawesi and found the Bugis people. When the Dayaks or Dusun reached the southern tip of Borneo, they simply crossed over to Jawa and Sumatera.

Scientist has concluded that the Expres Train theory that the Malay race come from Taiwan were now discredited. Scientist found genes found among Polynesians (Hawaii) were not found among the indigenous Taiwanese. This shows the connection is missing.

Instead the theory goes that the Malay people who migrated from Indo China reached the coast of Borneo where the race and language of the Malayo Polynesian incubated. It was from Borneo that people migrated out to Taiwan, the Philippines and the rest of Insular Southeast Asia and the pacifics and the Indian ocean. 

The proto Malays of Borneo were once great seafarers, reaching as far away land as Madagascar. Their migration led them to other Islands brought them to Sumatera, Jawa, Sulawesi, and then to the Pacifics Islands.

Incidently, the Malagasy language in Madagascar is closest to Maanyan language of Barito Kalimantan. But Manyan is closest to Dusun Witu of Barito which is alsmot 80% similar to the Dusun language of the Penampang and Papar Sabah dialect.

Dusun is about 30% similar to modern Malay. We know that modern Malay is only 30% indigenous, the rest were derived from or enriched by Sanskrit (Indian language), Arabs (during Islamic influence) and Chinese. 

But the 30% indigenous are almost all similar to Dusun language in terms of sound and meanings. The followings are some Dusun/Malay similarity.

Eg mato for mata, tolingo for telinga, todung for hidung, dilah for lidah, siku for siku, longon for lengan, kulit for kulit, tonsi for isi, raha for darah, tulang for tulang, wulu for bulu, pusod for pusat, tuhat for urat, wotis for betis, etc.

Other words, kayu for kayu, watang for batang, roun for daun, bunga for bunga, tuah for buah, etc 

Others, wulan for bulan, watu for batu, tana for tanah, sawat for sawat (as in pesawat), osin for masin, onsom for masam, po’it for pahit, omis for manis, apui for api, matai for mati, pais for pisau, etc.

Others, iso for sa, duo for dua, apat for empat, limo for lima , onom for enam, etc. Others, palanuk for pelanduk, buayo for buaya, lipos for lipas, tikus for tikus, tontolu for telur, ulanut for ular, etc

There are hundreds of words that form the indigenous part of the Malay language.

The dusun origins of modern Malay is something to be researched further. The dusunic speaking people are quite widespread. The Bisaya of Sarawak are dusunic people, also the dusuns of Tutung and Belait Brunei. In Barito, Kalimantan, the several dusunic speakers are related to the dusunic language.

Even the Bajau language and most visayan dialects in the Philippines can be traced to the dusunic langauge. 

According to Dr Zafarina, the dusuns produce the Bajau people (interesting). This correspond with the legend among Visayans that they came from Borneo.

It is ironic that the dusuns today are not constitutional Malay though scientific evidence now showed the Borneo origins of the Malay language.

The dusuns who populated Borneo did not find great civilization in Borneo. The credit must be given to their descendents who migrated to Sumatera and eventually became Malays through intermarriage with the more culturally advance Indians to form the seeds of the melayur kingdom.

Today it is true being Malay is a pride to many Malaysians. But the Malaysian Constitutional definition does not make them racially Malays. Officially, the word Malay is a religious identity, not a racial identity. 

Ironically, the only other people who defined their ethnic identity in terms of religion are the Jewish people. 

Even Arabs recognize Arab Christians as Arabs. But in Malaysia, one has to be a Muslim to be a Malay. 

The Malaysian constitutional definition excludes Javanese, Filipinos, and other indigenous in Southeast Asia who are malayo polynesian speakers as Malays because they do not fulfil the constitutinal definition.

The Malaysian definition of a Malay reduced the number of ethnic Malay to just 25 million people wolrd wide.

Thus, the Malay history also started only with the advent of islam in the 14th century. Malay did not exist before the advent of Islam.

The term Malay was popularized by western anthropologists based on their readings of Sejarah Melayu, however, distorted.

The term Malay is now very popular, used even by President Gloria Aroyo to identify her Filipino racial heritage. Unfortunately, may be she did not know, but the Malaysian Malays would have disputed her. She does not fulfill the Malaysian Constitutional definition to be a Malay.

Unless Malaysia change its constitution to make Malay a racial identity for Malayo Polynesian people, then the narrow definition would make the term Malay relevant to a small group of people in a sea of 300 million Austronesian Malayo Polynesian speakers.

As of now, to be a Malay is just like to be a Jew, where ethnicity is defined by religious identity.

Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Ancient church is oldest in world, say experts

By Tim Butcher in Jerusalem
Wednesday June 11 2008

Archaeologists claimed yesterday to have found the world's oldest church dating from shortly after Christ's crucifixion.

If tests confirm that it dates back to between AD 33 and AD 70, as the archaeologists claim, it would make it the earliest known place of Christian worship by around 200 years.

According to a report in the 'Jordan Times' newspaper, a very early underground church was found beneath the ancient Saint Georgeous Church, which itself dates back to AD 230, in Rihab, northern Jordan, near the Syrian border.

"We have uncovered what we believe to be the first church in the world, dating from AD 33 to 70,'' Abdul Qader al-Husan, the head of the Rihab Centre for Archaeological Studies, said.


"We have evidence to believe this church sheltered the early Christians -- the 70 disciples of Jesus Christ.''

A mosaic found in the church describes these Christians as "the 70 beloved by God and Divine''. Mr Husan said they were believed to have fled persecution in Jerusalem and founded churches in northern Jordan. He cited historical sources that suggest they both lived and practised religious rituals in the underground church.

A Jordanian worker cleans a mosaic floor near the broken tombstones of early Christian graves in the cemetery of Saint Georgeous church in the northern Jordanian town of Rihab on June 10, 2008 Credit: -/AFP/Getty Images

There is no clear holder of the title of oldest Christian church with various sites claiming the honour.

In 2005, Israeli archaeologists claimed to have found the earliest Christian church when they uncovered a floor mosaic dating from the first part of the third century. It was found inside the perimeter fence of a top-security prison in Megiddo or, to use its ancient name, Armageddon, where, according to the New Testament, the final battle between good and evil will be fought.

The bishop deputy of the Greek Orthodox archdiocese, Archimandrite Nektarious, described the Rihab discovery as an "important milestone for Christians all around the world''.

Researchers recovered pottery dating back to between the third and seventh centuries, which they say suggested that these first Christians and their followers lived in the area until late Roman rule. Inside the cave there are several stone seats which are believed to have been for the clergy and a circular shaped area, thought to be the apse. Rihab is home to 30 churches and Jesus and his mother are believed to have passed through the area, Mr Husan said. (©Daily Telegraph, London).

- Tim Butcher in Jerusalem

Sourse: Independent.ie

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

Prophet Muhammad’s promise to Christians

By Dr. Muqtedar Khan

Muslims and Christians together constitute over fifty percent of the world and if they lived in peace, we will be half way to world peace. One small step that we can take towards fostering Muslim-Christian harmony is to tell and retell positive stories and abstain from mutual demonization.

In this article I propose to remind both Muslims and Christians about a promise that Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) made to Christians. The knowledge of this promise can have enormous impact on Muslim conduct towards Christians. Muslims generally respect the precedent of their Prophet and try to practice it in their lives.

St. Catherine’s Monastery is located at the foot of Mt. Sinai and is the world’s oldest monastery.

In 628 AD, a delegation from St. Catherine’s Monastery came to Prophet Muhammed and requested his protection. He responded by granting them a charter of rights, which I reproduce below in its entirety. St. Catherine’s Monastery is located at the foot of Mt. Sinai and is the world’s oldest monastery. It possesses a huge collection of Christian manuscripts, second only to the Vatican, and is a world heritage site. It also boasts the oldest collection of Christian icons. It is a treasure house of Christian history that has remained safe for 1400 years under Muslim protection.

The Promise to St. Catherine:
"This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.

Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by God! I hold out against anything that displeases them.

No compulsion is to be on them. Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries. No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims' houses.

Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God's covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.

No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight. The Muslims are to fight for them. If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray. Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants.

No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world)."

The first and the final sentence of the charter are critical. They make the promise eternal and universal. Muhammed asserts that Muslims are with Christians near and far straight away rejecting any future attempts to limit the promise to St. Catherine alone. By ordering Muslims to obey it until the Day of Judgment the charter again undermines any future attempts to revoke the privileges. These rights are inalienable. Muhammed declared Christians, all of them, as his allies and he equated ill treatment of Christians with violating God’s covenant.

A remarkable aspect of the charter is that it imposes no conditions on Christians for enjoying its privileges. It is enough that they are Christians. They are not required to alter their beliefs, they do not have to make any payments and they do not have any obligations. This is a charter of rights without any duties!

The document is not a modern human rights treaty but even though it was penned in 628 A.D., it clearly protects the right to property, freedom of religion, freedom of work, and security of the person.

I know most readers, must be thinking so what? Well the answer is simple. Those who seek to foster discord among Muslims and Christians focus on issues that divide and emphasize areas of conflict. But when resources such as Muhammad’s promise to Christians are invoked and highlighted it builds bridges. It inspires Muslims to rise above communal intolerance and engenders good will in Christians who might be nursing fear of Islam or Muslims.

When I look at Islamic sources, I find in them unprecedented examples of religious tolerance and inclusiveness. They make me want to become a better person. I think the capacity to seek good and do good inheres in all of us. When we subdue this predisposition towards the good, we deny our fundamental humanity. In this holiday season, I hope all of us can find time to look for something positive and worthy of appreciation in the values, cultures and histories of other peoples.

-- Dr. Muqtedar Khan is Director of Islamic Studies at the University of Delaware and a fellow of the Institute for Social Policy and Understanding.

Source: Muslims.Net

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Cops arrest ‘bomber man’

KUALA LUMPUR: A Malaysian was caught with more than 7,000 detonators while trying to smuggle them into Indonesia.

Deputy Inspector-General of Police Datuk Seri Hussin Ismail said Indonesian police arrested Mohd Nawawi Malong, 40, from Tawau, at a port in south Sulawesi last Wednesday with the help of their Malaysian counterparts.

“We learnt that Mohd Nawawi was transporting the detonators from south Philippines to Tawau and to south Sulawesi via Nunukan Island in East Kalimantan.

“He travelled with the Indian-made detonators on passenger ferries,” Hussin said.

It is learnt police discovered that Mohd Nawawi brought the explosives for local fishermen to assemble fish bombs.

The suspect had wrapped the detonators in dozens of sacks.

In another operation, Hussin said on Sept 29, Taufiq Marzuki@ Sulaiman Tarmizi, a member of the Acheh Mujahideen Militant group (KMA) was arrested in Johor.

The 29-year-old had fled to Johor after a KMA training camp in Bireun, Aceh, was raided by Indonesian police in March.

Hussin said both arrests were due to the good working relationship between local police and their Indonesian counterparts.

News Sourcs: The Star

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Push for Sabah, S'wak's independence: Next stop UN .

By Athi Shankar
Source: Free Malaysia Today.

GEORGE TOWN: A group of prominent politicians and social activists from East Malaysia are seriously contemplating pulling out Sabah and Sarawak from the Federation of Malaysia.

They are planning to take up their case to the United Nations to hold a referendum on the status of the Borneo states as independent nations.

They no longer want their states to be under the clutches of the Umno-led Putrajaya administration.

The group has already sought legal advice from the international community to explore all orderly and democratic means to legally declare Sabah and Sarawak as separate sovereign states.

Sources said the group was keen to avoid any civil unrest, bloodshed and armed conflict with the central government, features usually associated with separatist movements.

“They want to resolve the pressing issue by peaceful and civilised means,” said the source.

It’s learnt that about seven representatives from the group met London-based Hindu Rights Action Force (Hindraf) chairman P Waytha Moorthy in Indonesia early this week to discuss the matter.

Sources close to the group said the activists sought Waytha Moorthy’s help to facilitate their imminent representation in the UN.

It’s learnt that Waytha Moorthy had agreed to assist them, with the help of several influential international organisations.

Waytha Moorthy recently facilitated a group of activists to air their grouses and grievances against the federal government at the UK Parliament.

'Systematic looting and plundering'

The group of activists are deeply perturbed by the federal government’s alleged violations of the states’ rights, interests and benefits for more than four decades since the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

“The group is angry over the systematic looting and plundering of the states’ wealth by Umno and its cronies,” said a source.

Sabah, Sarawak, Malaya and Singapore formerly joined Malaysia in 1963. However, Singapore left the Federation in 1965.

The Sabah and Sarawak activists believe that just like Singapore, their states too can pull out from Malaysia.

Sabah and Sarawak are two natural resources rich provinces in Malaysia, with massive wealth potentials in oil reserves and forestry.

However, Sabahans and Sarawakians are convinced that they have remained poor due to the federal government's “manipulation and usurpation” of their power to self-determine their own affairs.

Unhappy over petro dollars

They are crying foul over the mere five percent royalty cut received for their own oil, while the Putrajaya administration “steals” 95 percent of petro dollars.

“People from both Sabah and Sarawak realise that they are being short-changed. They know there has been daylight robbery of their god-given richness,” said a source.

Another contentious issue is the existence of an estimated 1.7 million illegal immigrants as rightful citizens in Sabah.

Sabahans termed the illegal immigrants, mostly Filipino and Indonesian Muslims, as former premier Dr Mahathir Mohamad’s legacy.

“The government since under Mahathir has systematically brought in these aliens and granted them citizenships. These aliens are now legal MyKad holders in Sabah. It’s absolutely outrageous and ludicrous,” said the source.

The illegal immigrant issue in Sarawak is not as disturbing as in Sabah although it is equally damaging.

'Raping of forest wealth'

The major issue in Sarawak is the “raping of state forest wealth” by the Umno-backed Taib Mahmud’s government at the expense of the indigenous population.

The natives are also disgruntled by the usurpation of their customary land rights by the authorities despite a recent apex court ruling against it.

Sabahans and Sarawakians are also said to be peeved with the “Malay-nisation and Islamisation” process of their states’ bureaucracy and political systems.

Activists claimed that the federal government had appointed native Muslims to helm various ministerial portfolios and government departments to hasten and fasten this process.

“These Muslim leaders and bureaucratic heads are puppets dancing to the tune played by their masters in Putrajaya,” said the source.

Orang Asli seething at uncaring govt.

“We don't want your sympathy. We are not beggars. We only ask for your respect and appreciation. We want what has been taken from us to be given back.”

By Patrick Lee
Source: Free Malaysia Today.

PETALING JAYA: Sidelined and insulted by the government, the Orang Asli are fuming and want their rights back and “not your sympathy”.

The Orang Asli Villages Network in Peninsular Malaysia (JKOASM) has vehemently opposed Budget 2011, calling it the beginning of the end to their traditional ways.

When unveiling the budget, Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak announced that RM100 million would be allocated for various programmes, including resolving Orang Asli land rights and border settlement issues.

The budget also said that tok batins (village headmen) were to be given a RM800 monthly allowance, a RM350 raise from their usual RM450. However, JKOASM revealed that the headmen received less than half of that amount (RM200).

“If the real amount is RM450 a month, where did the other RM250 go?” the statement asked.

Besides, instead of being handed out on a monthly basis, the allowance was claimed to have been given once a year, or every three months.

The statement added that these payments were sometimes delayed for several months without any explanation.

“We don't understand why the government does not leave us in peace. It seems to be out to get us on purpose.”

Basic amenities

The government was also criticised for not providing the most basic amenities to hundreds of Orang Asli villages, despite several multi-million ringgit allocations.

“Where have all the allocations gone? There are still hundreds of Orang Asli villages that do not have access to clean water, electricity or tarred roads. These villagers have to trek many miles just to get their water,” the statement said.

Citing development failures such as Kampung Buluh Nipis, Pos Betau, Bukit Lanjan and even the glamourously-styled Damansara Perdana, the statement said that the government only caused more hardship for the Orang Asli.

The statement also expressed its disappointment with Najib for referring to the Orang Asli as Sakai and Jakun during his speech at the recent Umno general assembly.

"Other races get angry and hurt over racially insensitive comments. The Orang Asli have feelings, too, and we don't like being referred to as (Sakai and Jakun),” the statement said.

"Najib does not respect the rights of the Orang Asli as the original peoples of Malaysia."

JKOASM also took a swipe at the Orang Asli Affairs Department (JHEOA) for allowing other government agencies such as the Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority, Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority and the police force to interfere in Orang Asli matters.

According to JKOASM, the department had allegedly made it easier for the government to encroach upon native land, bit by bit.

Life and blood

The statement also said that Najib had ignored its memorandum to the government earlier this year.

On March 17, about 1,000 Orang Asli descended on Putrajaya and handed over the memorandun signed by more than 9,000 Orang Asli to officials of the Prime Ministetr's Department. They were protesting the government's land policy.

According to the memorandum, the new policy, adopted by the National Land Council in December 2009, would grant land to the Orang Asli. The government would divide sections of land into two to six acres each without consulting the Orang Asli.

“Our land is our life and blood and not just one part of the economy,” the statement said, adding that a Royal Commission of Inquiry should be set up to investigate the alleged mistreatment of the Orang Asli.

Monday, December 14, 2009

Master English to ensure we are not re-colonised, says Mahathir

(Dec 14, 2009): Malaysians have an extremely important role of mastering English to acquire knowledge at a faster pace to ensure there is no 're-colonisation' of the country, said Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad.

Without a good command of English, the former prime minister noted, the people would not acquire knowledge quickly. He said this would, in turn, open doors to those knowledgeable to dominate and influence them, either directly or indirectly.

"English is the language of the Knowledge Age. Countries which do not master English will not only be left behind but risk being colonised, either directly or indirectly.

"Without knowledge, countries will be oppressed and even invaded," Dr Mahathir told reporters after delivering his keynote address entitled, 'The Leadership and Policy Components for the Knowledge Society: A Proposed Best Practice for Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) member countries at the 17th Islamic World Academy of Sciences (IAS) conference.

Mahathir said that only by mastering English, could the people in this country acquire knowledge at a faster pace so as not to be left behind by development. He said, the people would not lose their identity by seeking knowledge in English. "English is not only for English people but (it is) a universal language. I am not an Englishman but I speak English," he said. “Are you an Englishman?” he asked a reporter.

But today, Mahathir said the government was “ignoring success” by abolishing the teaching of Science and Mathematics in English (PPSMI) and reverting to Bahasa Malaysia.

"I don't think the government understands the importance of English as a language of knowledge when they decided to switch from English to Malay (in teaching Science and Mathematics)," he said.

Recently, Deputy Prime Minister and Education Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said the government had decided to reverse the PPSMI policy and revert to Bahasa Malaysia in national schools, and Chinese and Tamil in vernacular schools from 2012.

The PPSMI policy was implemented in phases, beginning with Year One, Form One and Lower Six students in 2003, under Dr Mahathir's administration.

Earlier, when delivering his keynote address, Mahathir said knowledge was expanding rapidly, especially in science, and books and writings on this subject were in English.

He said that possibilities are there to override past beliefs in the field of science, which cannot be done in geography and history. "Knowledge in science is not static unlike geography and history where facts are structured and limited.

"In science, we can always go back and question the scientific principles and decide whether they are right or not," he said, adding new discoveries are coming out in torrents in English. -- Bernama